Maffew is a hairdresser, marketer, and dabbler in many things who enjoys sharing knowledge about the science of hair coloring and hair care.
How to Properly Use Hair Bleach
If you have dark hair and want to dye it blonde, you need to be able to use bleach. However, hair bleach is a powerful product capable of dramatically changing the appearance of your hair. With that power comes the potential for some pretty devastating results if used incorrectly.
Using the product haphazardly can result in uneven lightening and brittle hair. Other unintended hair color results like red or yellow are also some of the common potential mistakes when you bleach hair at home.
A little knowledge goes a long way, and with the tips and tools in this article, you will learn to bleach your hair with finesse and avoid any issues in how it turns out.
How Hair Bleach Works
Hair bleach consists of two different products that are mixed before use:
- Bleach powder: This consists of lighteners, thickeners, and alkalizing agents, among other compounds.
- Developer: A solution of hydrogen peroxide.
It's worth noting that both the powder itself and the developer are lighteners, but it's the combination that is particularly special because combining them allows for two vital functions:
- The powder becomes moist, making chemical reactions occur more readily.
- The alkalizing agents activate the developer, causing it to start oxidizing whatever it contacts.
This whole process becomes even more ingenious when you consider how it affects your hair's structure though. Plain hydrogen peroxide can lighten hair on its own, but the effect is surprisingly mild. This is because it isn't able to penetrate the hair very effectively due to the cuticles of the hair shaft sealing it against environmental stressors.
However, the alkalinity from the ammonia in freshly mixed hair bleach not only activates the peroxide but also happens to open the cuticle layer. This is what allows the bleach mixture to enter the cortex of the hair shaft, where it oxidizes the melanin pigment that forms your natural hair color.
It is the interaction of all the individual ingredients is what creates the perfect environment to bleach hair effectively.
Now that you know a little about how hair bleach works, it's important to discuss the individual components of the product.
Developer, in particular, is very important to understand because it comes in different strengths, and this changes how strong the mixed product will be. These product strengths, while often measured in percentages, are more commonly known as the developer volume.
You can get a good idea of the usage of each strength by looking at the table below. As a general rule, you should typically use a 20 vol developer to bleach your hair. However, you can increase that to 30 vol with certain brands, and a higher strength is often preferred for bleaching hair off-scalp, too, since there's little risk of irritation with this technique anyway.
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Bleach to Developer Ratio
Using the table above will give you a rough idea of the uses of each developer volume as it pertains to the whole of hair coloring, whether lightening hair or dyeing hair. Most important to grasp though is that in almost all cases, a higher developer volume will produce more hair lightening in a given time frame. However, this is at the expense of also causing more irritation to your scalp and potentially more damage.
There are also brand-dependent differences which will be discussed in more detail later. You may be able to use 30 vol developer on-scalp with one bleach powder, but it either won't be recommended or is even advised against for a different brand.
There are reasons for this that are due to the formula of the hair bleach, making it important to understand the individual product you've chosen in the context of more generalized rules.
Hair Levels and Tones
All hair from black to the lightest blonde falls somewhere on the international color code (ICC) level system. Black hair is defined as level one usually, and this goes all the way to level ten, which is a practically white shade of blonde. There is some variation among how different brands use the level scale though, but these are typically small and few rather than overly detrimental differences.
Now that you know how the darkness of your hair is categorized, it's helpful to the process of bleaching itself to discuss just what comprises hair depth. The color of your natural hair consists of a base pigment underneath the color you actually see, and this contributes to the depth of the color, making it appear dark.
- In blonde hair, the base pigment is anything from pale yellow to golden orange.
- Black hair, however, has a deep, dark red base.
When you bleach your hair, the visible color is stripped away to reveal the base pigment, and you can estimate how much lightening has occurred by looking at the base color you've arrived at. You can also use the base color as a guide to what level of toner you should be using and what color you will ultimately be able to reach after toning is complete.
As an example of how you would go about using this information, if you have identified that your current hair color is a level five, and you can lift it up to three levels reliably with the bleach you've prepared, the lightest level you can reach is an eight. You can then see that your hair became a dark yellow color which tells you this is correct.
Now that you know what level you've reached, you know that you need an ash toner that is a level eight or nine in order to neutralize this yellow pigment to a natural-looking result. Essentially, the chart below is your go-to cheat sheet for reaching any new hair color.
The chart gives you the knowledge you need to know whether a goal is reasonable (in conjunction with knowledge of developer volume), and even what to look for to know if you're on the right track, as well as the correct shade of dye to be used as a toner afterward to finish your new hair color!
Lift Potential of Bleach
A number of factors impact the effectiveness of a product when bleaching hair. Some of the more major factors include:
- Hair porosity - how receptive your hair is to soak up the color in dyes. Porous hair bleaches more readily a lot of the time because the product has an easier time getting inside the hair due to weakened cuticles. The opposite situation is resistant hair, which is, as implied, more resistant to bleaching.
- Developer volume - has a fairly linear effect on hair bleaching—higher volume equals more lightening.
- Bleach powder - the particular bleach powder you choose to use can dramatically affect how much lightening you're able to achieve. For example, there's a significant difference between a powder with boosters or a plain generic powder.
- Warmth - the warmer the temperature of the bleach, the more readily it reacts with your hair. This often leads to hair wraps or hoods being used on rather dark hair or where additional lightening is desired.
- Water quality - interestingly enough, the quality of water you regularly wash your hair with has an effect on hair bleach too. Water that contains a lot of metals like iron or copper leads to those metals being found in your hair in higher than expected concentrations. This can actually catalyze the bleach, making it react more rapidly and aggressively. Sometimes a chelating shampoo is used beforehand if this is known to be a potential issue.
|Peroxide Concentration||Lift potential|
Should You Use Bleach?
Before you even start using hair bleach, you need to decide whether you will actually require it and whether it is the best tool for the job. You should also understand the need to look at other factors like the condition of your hair first.
As much as you might want a new lighter hair color, there's only so much damage your hair can take. Depending on how coarse your hair strands are, this is more than you'd expect, but you'll still notice a deterioration of its appearance even before any snapping occurs. It's important to be mindful of your hair's health before using any hair lightener.
Other factors to consider include:
- How many levels do you want to lighten your hair by?
- Has your hair been dyed before?
For a new color that requires 2–3 levels of hair lightening, you'll generally be able to achieve this result using dye with 30 or 40 vol as the developer, depending on the initial depth and whether your hair has been dyed before. Hair that hasn't been dyed before is commonly referred to as virgin hair and this will be lightened easily and reliably by a permanent dye with a high volume of developer.
Hair that has already been dyed will be significantly more stubborn, however, necessitating the use of other products like hair dye remover, bleach, or a bleach bath, dependent on how much lighter you need to take it. Though, that is somewhat outside the scope of this article as it's more in the territory of color correction.
- Basically, consider natural hair a good candidate for lightening by dye if you only need 2–3 levels of lift.
- For significant lightening, very dark, or previously dyed hair, bleaching is generally necessary.
Generic vs. Salon Hair Bleach
There are two different kinds of bleach to consider, and your choice will come down to some combination of budget and desired results. Generic products work just fine, but the problem with them is that you get less lightening out of them compared to some of the high-end brands.
Salon products often include boosters and damage-mitigating ingredients that allow the bleach to lighten your hair more effectively while using a lower volume of developer. Products like Igora Rapid Blonde or Wella Blondor mixed with 20 vol developer can usually out-perform a generic powder mixed with 30 vol.
To be frank, when it comes to the condition of your hair, I'd recommend spending a little more on a better product because it will also lighten it more effectively. There's no real issue in choosing to use a cheaper powder, but just understand that depending on how dark your hair is and how much lift you need, you may have to bleach twice with one of those powders or use a higher developer volume/longer duration.
This can and should also be factored into the cost because if you need to apply two applications of a product compared to only one application of a higher quality but a more expensive product, the true cost of the generic product is effectively doubled in comparison.
Preparing Hair Bleach
You should have a goal in mind before bleaching your hair. By combining the concept of depth levels and the lifting potential of the different peroxide concentrations, you should be able to arrive at an accurate estimate of how much lift you can achieve when bleaching your hair.
This will help you avoid mistakes and not hold unrealistic expectations when you use the product. There is of course some brand variation here, and often a product will state how much lift you can hope for from a specific volume of developer.
To prepare the bleach, you will need a standard hair dye mixing bowl and tinting brush. Mix the powder together in a one-to-one ratio of bleach and your chosen concentration of peroxide, unless the brand you're using specifies a different ratio. The product should be prepared and then used immediately as there is a chemical reaction taking place and the product is losing effectiveness while you leave it sitting.
Always wear gloves when you bleach hair, even during mixing. While it won't do anything to most people if a little gets on your hands and isn't left too long, some people have more sensitive skin than others, and it's just good practice to protect your hands in general when using any chemical product.
When applying hair bleach, a quicker application will reduce the chance of uneven results. In order to apply it quickly, there are a number of different sectioning and application methods that can be used, often based on personal preference. The simplest and most reliable for most people would be to divide the hair into four quadrants though.
To divide your hair into quadrants:
- Part your hair down the middle
- Make another part again from ear to ear.
Aim to get these quadrant sections roughly even. There is a bit of practice involved but the general positions above are a good guideline to work from, adjust based on individual head shape as needed.
For long or very thick hair, you may wish to use crocodile sectioning clips rather than a flat clip. Once you have your four quadrants, all you need to do now is work on them one at a time, quickly, taking relatively thin sections of hair from top to bottom, painting with bleach from close to the root of the hair out along the lengths and tips.
Apply less bleach very close to the scalp. This is for two reasons: it will cause less skin irritation, and it mitigates the risk of 'hot roots,' where the heat of the scalp has produced more bleaching closer to the scalp. Don't worry; the moistness of the product will allow it to creep in all the way and coat the root area properly, though less densely than if you put it there by brush.
Alternatively, if you lack the time or are having trouble not covering your roots too much, wrap the whole thing after coating all hair, and then it's a non-issue because the heat will be equalized. You can choose to wrap your hair at the end, and this will lead to more hair lightening because the entire preparation is kept warmer.
Some brands advise against wrapping your hair, so consider it relative to your brand. Generally, the more aggressive powders are the products you shouldn't wrap, but you should check the product you're using beforehand.
On-Scalp and Off-Scalp Bleaching
As mentioned earlier in this article, there's a distinction to be made about whether the hair bleach you are using contacts the scalp or not. Generally, this pertains to highlights, which are painted into foil sheets or meche, and the product has been intentionally kept off your root section. This primarily allows for a higher developer volume to be used while bleaching hair.
You can get away with doing this in highlights because you're working with less of the hair, and the product won't contact the skin much, if at all, limiting irritation. You should still only use the higher concentration of peroxide if the manufacturer allows it, and you truly need the extra power.
That power comes with a price in that it causes higher damage. This damage will be less visible because it only affects a small part of the hair compared to a full head bleach, but with repeated applications of highlights over time, it can and does add up.
The length of time that you leave the bleach in the process is largely dependent on your goal. The only thing to remember is that it shouldn't be left in for longer than 45 minutes in most cases and for most brands. If the bleach hasn't lifted enough pigment by that time you will have to perform another application or follow up with a lightening dye, and this shouldn't be done for at least a week. It also should only be repeated if your hair is still in good condition.
There are three primary reasons why you need to rinse the bleach out in a certain time frame or less, dependent on the brand used:
The reaction that allows bleach to lighten hair actually slows down quite suddenly, just like it ramps up quite suddenly after application. This is because most of the reactive oxygen has already been liberated by this point.
If you keep the bleach in your hair longer than recommended, all you really do is increase irritation to your scalp and cause more damage to your hair because the hair has been kept in an alkaline state that weakens it structurally over time and makes it more susceptible to damage the longer the bleach is left in. It is not only the oxidation that damages your hair, but also the increased pH and moist environment.
If the bleach has lifted enough pigment before the recommended maximum time frame, however, wash it out immediately to stop the process and avoid any further damage or lightening. Bleach needs to be watched closely to avoid over-processing, and you should check it roughly every 5–10 minutes as it processes.
Rinsing and Toning
Bleach should be rinsed out thoroughly with plenty of cool water before you shampoo your hair. Any product that isn't rinsed out will potentially continue to damage your hair, as well as irritate your skin, so it is important that you ensure it is all removed. Shampoo your hair twice to remove any remaining residue.
If you're going to be applying a dye or toner immediately, avoid using a conditioner after bleaching your hair because it closes the hair cuticles and will reduce how effectively the dye is able to penetrate and neutralize any unwanted colors that are present. This is a generalization, but will work for most people: the dye you use to tone your hair should be 1–2 levels lighter than the level you bleached it to, in an ash tone.
For example, if you bleached your hair to level 6 and it was a deep golden orange, you should use a 7A or 8A to tone it. If you bleached your hair to a level 8 and it was yellow, you should use a 9A or 10A to tone it. The dye will be suited to the base tone of your hair because of the level that was chosen so, in the darker example, it's a darker dye and contains mostly blue pigment to cope with orange tones, whereas the lighter example is violet.
The only time this won't work is if you're bleaching dyed hair, and it has continued to look orange into lighter levels than it should due to the artificial pigment present. This technically is a color correction at this point, and to give some insight without digressing too much, the proper way to solve it would be to take a lighter dye and add straight ash or a sensible, small amount of a pure blue tone if the brand you're using has that.
After toning, rinse the product out, and then you can follow up with a conditioner to neutralize any lingering alkalinity and seal the color into the hair. For hair that feels really rough, you can mix a small amount of white vinegar into some conditioner, too, and this is an effective way to close the cuticles and bring the hair back to natural balance much quicker. This will help make your hair feel smoother and look shinier, as well as decrease fading of the new hair color.
Balayage Bleaching Technique
Balayage is a method of highlighting your hair with bleach using a freeform technique. This creates a look that requires less maintenance yet can transform dull hair with dimensional color.
There are many ways to achieve the look yourself, including with the use of meche or foil to separate sections of hair that will be lightened, but the easiest technique is to simply section your hair as desired and apply bleach by brush from the lengths of your hair outwards. You can blend this using different strengths of bleach by timing the application of each area differently to create different levels of hair lightening or graduation.
See the video below for a helpful tutorial on some of the ways you can use this technique when bleaching your hair at home.
Bleach Isn't Scary!
Bleaching your hair doesn't have to result in a horror story, nor does it have to damage your hair. To achieve the best results and maintain the integrity of your hair, remember to be safe when you use it and to only apply it to hair that isn't already damaged.
If you look after your hair like this, you can bleach your hair successfully, and it will continue to look and feel great afterward. You can reach your ideal color with just a little knowledge and patience.
Do you have a question about bleach, or need more help using it? Leave a comment for tailored advice.
- How to Take Care of Dyed Hair
Colored hair requires care to keep it looking good and prevent the shade from fading. Find out how to look after your new color.
- How to Tone Blonde Hair
Bleached hair looks its best when it's toned. Find out how to properly tone your hair to achieve a beautiful natural color.
- How to Dye Hair Blonde
Wishing you were blonde? Find out how to dye your hair blonde - the right way!
This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and is not meant to substitute for formal and individualized advice from a qualified professional.
© 2014 Maffew James
Maffew James (author) on August 15, 2020:
Hi G owen,
Where that's the case you need to wash them out sequentially over time in the same order you put them in rather than all at once.
G owen on August 15, 2020:
What a out the time it takes to apply bleached highlights. Eg it takes 20 minutes to put them all in so the ones you put in first are nearly ready and the ones you've just put in are still deep yellow?
Maffew James (author) on August 13, 2020:
Yes, ideally use the Welloxon developer. Any developer will work so that's not too big an issue but brands don't test their products with alternative developer brands generally so they may not mix as well if you use a different developer.
The developer strength determines how much lift you'll get out of both the bleach and dye and this really depends on how much lightening you want. In the case of the 88/0 dye at least, assuming you're saying you would want to use it on hair that has already been bleached to add some more dimension by darkening it a little, you'd mix this with 4% which is the developer strength used for tone-on-tone/darker dyeing.
Anything from 1.9% up to 12% can be used with the blondor bleach, and the higher developer strength you use, the more lightening it gives. Don't use more than 6% if it will touch your scalp though, and to practical based on your starting colour of around 5-6, you wouldn't need more than this strength anyway. I'd say stick to either 4% or 6% with the bleach, in foils, but keep a close eye on it as it processes to get a feel for how quickly your hair lightens and adjust either the strength or processing time for next time. Alternatively, get in contact with your hairdresser if possible to get more information about what strength they were using, and how long they were leaving it in if you won't a better chance of getting a similar result.
To mix, Blondor bleach is 1 part bleach to 1.5-2 parts developer (developer in that range of anywhere from 1.5 to 2 parts is fine, but probably just mix 1:1.5 for the thicker consistency as it will be less messy to work with). The dye is a 1:1 ratio, same amount of dye to developer.
The bleach can be left in up to 50 minutes, but that's where the watching comes in, rinse it out well before then when it's as light as you want since it won't take anywhere near that long based on your starting depth and how effective Blondor bleach is. The dye should develop 30-40 minutes for lasting, darker colour.
To be honest with you, this isn't any easy task if you haven't applied any highlights before and you risk a lot of potential mistakes, eg patchy lightening if you don't apply bleach properly, darker dye bleeding through to unintended areas. You can definitely achieve a good result yourself, but the best idea here would be to be really conservative and just put a few highlights and lowlights through at first to see how you handle it and get a feel for using the products and foils or meche. It's a learning experience and you'll get better with time if this is something you expect to keep doing over the long-term throughout all the lockdowns and other issues right now.
BCE607 on August 09, 2020:
Hi I want to do a half head of highlights with foils & want to use: WELLA Blondor Multi Blonde Dust Free Powder Bleach Lightener.
My hairdresser has done my hair for years and up untill 6 weeks prior to lockdown I had my done this way. Money is tight so I am wanting to do my own hair. My hair is fine and my mousey coloured roots (5-6) are now about 2.5" in growth.
My hairdresser also at times uses WELLA Koleston Perfect Me 88/0 Intense Light Blond to have both lighter and dark tones instead of just blond highlights.
My questions are -
Should I use WELLA Welloxon Developer with these and which strength?
How do I mix them AND how long do I leave the product on?
As I have never done my own blond highlights before any help would be appreciated.
Ashley on July 20, 2020:
I have virgin hair (it’s a wig so you ever really know ) and I’m going to bleach the hair. The goal is to get a multi tones brown streaks throughout the hair. So my questions is how can I get multiple brown shades throughout the hair
galaxy on July 07, 2020:
can I only bleach half of my hair
Shirley on April 29, 2020:
Found the extra detailed info. From my first question.. second is what kind of peroxide do you recommend
Jamm beaduty on April 24, 2020:
The above problems you write very well, I have 1 such article. Please see my article to compare
Susan Paci on April 22, 2020:
How can I get rid of the grayish/purple color the toner left in my highlighted hair? Since the salons are closed. I reached out to my stylist and she said she uses Redken 9t & 9a; but I couldn't find 9a anywhere so I ordered 9v plus a little of T18 from Wella. She told me 20 minutes which was much longer than when in the shop but I did it. Although the brass is gone, the white/blonde highlights are now a grayish/purple/lavendar.
Joyce Ritorto on April 17, 2020:
Can I buy from you level 5/6 with 20 oxide on my roots.
Duckiie on April 14, 2020:
Question. Due to this whole COVID19 and stores shutting down I'm stuck with drugstore boxed bleaching kits.... Any advice? Super nervous as it has been YEARS since I've used any kind of boxed dye on my hair....
Color level on April 13, 2020:
Hey there! I wanna find out what's the level of my hair now. It's not my natural color. Though inside the house looks like 4 and in the sun 5-6.Its a reddish brown.
I wanna bleached it 2 levels only to put a dark purple. I got a oxy cream 30.Can I put coconut oil before bleaching so the lightening don't be so bold or leave it for 15 mins?
Kortny on April 12, 2020:
Can i use 40 vol
Ravina on March 07, 2020:
How much developer do I pout in the bleach and my bleach is a liquid bleach it doesn’t tell me how much I should do.