How to Repair Damaged Hair Properly
Damaged hair is common amongst people who dye their hair often or use heated styling tools. Every time you subject your hair to any form of chemical treatment, damage occurs to both the surface of the hair shaft and the deeper structure within.
Extensive lightening and perming treatments cause the most damage overall, but even minor dye jobs can lead to unnoticeable damage that gradually builds up and becomes more problematic with each successive treatment.
Damage to your hair may seem like cause for alarm and stress, but it doesn't mean you have to necessarily cut it off and start again. Knowing why the damage occurs, and being able to use the right products and care routine to repair damaged hair can reverse even a serious disaster, and allow you to keep your favorite style.
- Avoid overlapping dye or bleach on top of hair that has been previously treated. Only the regrowth should be processed when you maintain your current color.
- For previously dyed hair that has faded, revitalize your color with a semi-permanent dye or temporary rinse. This will reverse fading without causing further damage.
- Don't bleach hair that has been permed or relaxed, and vice versa, don't perm or relax hair that has been bleached. Consider alternative ways to curl or straighten your hair.
What causes damage?
The damage that occurs to your hair when you subject it to a chemical treatment is a result of the hair's structural integrity being compromised. When the structure of the hair shaft is compromised, it can snap or form split ends more readily.
Hair needs a solid foundation, and the building block of your hair is a protein called keratin. Bleach and perming solutions damage your hair by oxidizing and breaking down the bonds between the amino acids in the hair's keratin structure.
In the case of permanent hair dye and lightening preparations, this damage is an unintended side effect of the oxidation needed to drive the chemical reaction and lighten the hair. Perming and relaxing treatments however, aim to intentionally break bonds in your hair and reset them to change your hair's texture.
Whilst these new bonds lead to curlier or straighter hair depending on the way the solution is used, they are weaker than the natural bonds that were reset. The very nature of current hair treatments means you can't color or texturize your hair permanently without causing at least a little damage.
Types of hair damage
In order to repair damaged hair, it's necessary to address the specific type of damage that has occurred. Primarily, this damage consists of:
- Damage to the hair cortex
- Damage to the cuticle
- Stripping of the hair's natural oils
Most chemical treatments leave your hair feeling dry, rough, and brittle. This isn't necessarily actual damage to the hair structure, but it does leave the hair more prone to snapping and splitting because the hair lacks the necessary moisture to maintain adequate flexibility and elasticity.
If you've just bleached your hair and it feels terrible, this is normal to some degree because the natural oils that moisturize your hair have been stripped out by the alkaline bleaching solution, drying it out more than would ever naturally occur through washing. Before you panic and decide your hair is ruined, allow it to rest.
Condition it thoroughly with a deep conditioner and don't wash it again for a few days. In most cases, as the oil begins to build up again, your hair will begin to return back to normal and you'll see that it wasn't very damaged at all. If however, you're suffering breakages and split ends that won't respond to conditioning, this is a tell-tale sign that your hair has actually been compromised, and you'll need to address this with more targeted treatment to repair damaged hair.
When the condition of your hair deteriorates, it has either suffered damage to the cuticles that line the surface of the hair shaft, or the cortex which lies inside the shaft and gives the hair its form and strength. Damage to the cuticles is superficial and manageable, mainly causing moisture problems, a rougher texture, and porosity, whilst damage to the cortex causes your hair to break easily, and fall apart when subjected to stretching or pulling.
Hair is rough, feels brittle, may break, and doesn't style properly
Reverses with conditoning
If hair is properly conditioned yet breaks, suspect damage to the hair cortex
Structural repair with protein treatments
Porous hair sucks up hair dye, but fades rapidly. It doesn't hold moisture and suffers from extreme humidity.
Smoothing serums, porosity equalizer, leave-in conditioners
If your hair sucks up hair dye yet fades quickly, often feels dry, and reacts badly to humidity, it's likely you're dealing with porous hair. Hair that is porous requires a good conditioner, and a smoothing serum to lock in moisture and protect it from the environment.
The cuticles of your hair are the windows into the deeper structure of the cortex, holding moisture where it's needed and protecting your hair from the environment. When the cuticles are damaged, the hair loses moisture easily and will suffer more readily in situations of low or high humidity. In this state, the hair is said to be porous.
Porous hair can occur naturally in some people, but for the most part it is a result of damage to the cuticles. If your hair is porous, the best indication is that it absorbs hair dye really well, yet fades unexpectedly fast. This is because the color can be washed out of your hair easier than if the cuticles were intact to prevent it from leaving the hair shaft.
Cuticle damage can also cause the hair to feel dry and rough, and it will be more prone to split ends and frizz. The cuticles can't be replaced, but the symptoms can be controlled relatively easily. To combat dryness, always condition your hair after you've shampooed it, and follow this up with a dab of leave-in conditioner for more stubborn dryness. Adequate conditioning is all that's required to cut down a lot of the frizz and prevent brittleness that can lead to snapping.
Protecting your hair from the environment is also a simple matter, and can be accomplished with the use of smoothing serums. A good smoothing serum will coat the hair shaft, trapping moisture and locking it in where it's required. When a smoothing serum has been applied, the hair shaft is coated with a silicone barrier and the humidity isn't able to drastically affect your hair. It functions a little like an artificial cuticle to keep the hair looking and feeling its best.
Finally, when you dye hair that has suffered cuticle damage, the porosity often leads to uneven results. To prevent this, always treat your hair with a porosity equalizing product before you apply any dye. Porosity equalizers are designed to fill gaps in the structure of your hair, saving you from having sections of porous hair that turn out darker than the rest of your new hair color.
Keratin treatments are a great way to repair damaged hair and they can even be used to straighten hair that is naturally curly without causing damage. Many hairdressers offer this treatment, and you can even apply a keratin treatment in the comfort of your own home for little cost.
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Damage to the hair cuticle is superficial and rarely causes a serious problem, but the same can't be said when there is damage to the hair cortex. This damage is structural and the integrity of the hair suffers. Hair that has sustained damaged to the cortex breaks easily, forms split-ends, frizzes up readily, and doesn't hold up to styling.
You'll likely know if you have structural damage because you'll notice how easily your hair tends to break, and hair that was previously smooth can look like a frizzy mess. One of the easiest ways to determine whether structural damage has occurred, is to examine it whilst wet.
Hair is at its weakest when wet, and hair that has been damaged will snap or even stretch apart when handled. If your hair feels strangely fragile when wet, there is damage to the hair structure.
To repair damaged hair when the cortex is compromised, the protein in your hair needs to be strengthened. No amount of conditioning will help relieve the problem because conditioners only act to relieve dryness, so hot oil treatments, moisturizing masques, and most 'repair treatments' are useless. Hair like this will only respond to a protein treatment.
Protein treatments work to replace the damaged protein in your hair structure. It is this damaged protein that leads to its fragile state. Products like Joico K-Pac Reconstructor and Redken CAT treatment will noticeably improve damaged hair even with a single use, and this effect builds up over time.
For the best results, use a protein treatment that actually includes amino acids, rather than whole protein. In particular, the amino acid arginine is one of the most effective substances for improving the strength and condition of your hair. When arginine comes into contact with the damaged protein in your hair, it bonds to the hair structure to reinforce it and increase the structural integrity.
If all else fails and you believe your hair is beyond saving, keratin treatments are a last line of offense. Your hair is made of keratin protein, and keratin treatments are made from actual keratin. These treatments help to replace the damaged protein and repair damaged hair to its former condition. They can even be used to straighten hair without the damage of a relaxing solution.
When you need to repair damaged hair, the most important thing to grasp is that it's not the end of the world. In most cases, you can reverse damage to your hair, or at least alleviate it to the point that it isn't a significant problem.
Do you have a question about how to repair damaged hair, or need help using protein treatments? Leave a comment for tailored advice...
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